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How to harvest other crops with wheat Combine harvester?

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How to harvest other crops with wheat Combine harvester?

Wheat Combine harvester is used to harvest soybean crops. 

Reasonable adjustment to reduce losses

1. Control header loss

     In soybean harvesting, header losses generally account for over 80% of the total losses. Controlling header losses should start from three aspects: reducing missed cuts, falling branches, and exploding pods.

(1) Reduce missed cuts. The current ridge spacing is generally 65-70 cm. Taking the 3060 Combine harvester as an example, the soybean flexible header has a cutting width of 2.75 meters, and each one just harvests 4 ridges. Therefore, the main reason for missing cutting is the height of the stubble. If the stubble is too low, it is easy to accumulate piles in front of the cutting table; Cutting stubble too high can easily leave "ear stubble" and cut bottom pods. The minimum pod height of soybeans is generally 6-8cm. Therefore, if the cutting height is controlled within 4-6 cm, there will be no "ear stubble". But sometimes there is a tendency for stacking, and the bottom drag plate of the header can be adjusted to reduce stacking.

(2) Reduce losses from throwing and dropping branches. Dropping branches is mainly caused by improper rotation speed of the reel (too low or too high), which can be solved by paying attention to adjustment during operation. Dropping branches is mainly caused by uneven height or lodging of plants. At this time, after the stem is cut, the bean branches are not pulled into the cutting table, and fall vertically or horizontally after being cut twice by the cutting knife before falling under the cutting table. The solution is to adjust the height of the reel appropriately or increase the vehicle speed when the feeding amount allows.

(3) Reduce pod damage. Reduce the impact and pulling of the cutting blade on the plant, ensure that the cutting blade is sharp and the gap between the cutting blades meets the requirements; Adjust the tension of the swing ring box transmission belt to prevent the cutting speed from decreasing due to the slipping of the transmission belt, which affects the cutting quality; Reduce the impact and scraping of the paddling wheel on the bean stalks and pods. In the early stage of harvesting, the moisture content of soybean branches is relatively high, and the rotation speed of the paddling wheel can be appropriately higher; In the later stage, the bean branches are dry and prone to pods exploding, so the speed of the reel should be lower. In addition, it is recommended to avoid direct impact of the paddling teeth on the bean branches, and to install a paddling plate on the paddling wheel.

2. Reduce body losses

(1) Control the loss of grain wrapping. Avoid harvesting crops that are too humid and have a moisture content of over 19% (with plants constantly bending), as increasing the rotational speed, adjusting the gap, and increasing the air volume cannot solve the problems of unclear separation and bean husks wrapping around the beans.

(2) Control the net loss that has not been removed. Soybean threshing utilizes the impact, rubbing, and squeezing effects of stripes on the pods. The drum and concave plate mainly strike the first half of the bean branch, while the latter half is mainly rubbed and squeezed. During this process, 60% -90% of the bean seeds are separated from the concave plate grid. Therefore, factors affecting the threshing quality include the speed of the threshing drum, threshing gap, crop conditions, and feeding conditions. In general, when harvesting soybeans, the speed of the threshing drum can be selected as 715r/min, the speed of the separation drum can be selected as 608r/min, and the forward speed of the harvester is in gear II. The feeding amount is controlled by stepless speed change.

(3) Control entrainment loss. Try to increase the air volume of the fan as much as possible, that is, increase the fan speed, and at the same time, adjust the opening of the chaff screen to the maximum, and increase the angle of the tail screen. This can reduce the loss of soybean entrainment and improve the cleanliness of the grain.

Reasonable use to improve homework quality

1. Reducing the crushing rate of soybeans mainly starts from the following aspects.

(1) Timely harvest. Because soybeans undergo multiple processes during harvesting, such as threshing, cutting, transportation, threshing, cleaning, and grain discharge, each process involves rubbing and impacting the beans. The beans must have sufficient strength and hardness to prevent breakage. When beans are too wet, their hardness is low, their anti rubbing performance is poor, and they are easy to be squeezed flat; When beans are too dry, their toughness is poor, their strength is low, they are not resistant to impact, and they are easy to break under high-speed impact.

(2) Correct selection of threshing drum speed and clearance. In the early stage of harvesting, the moisture content of the beans is high and difficult to remove. Therefore, a drum speed of 715r/min should be used, with a population gap of 20-28cm and an outlet gap of 8-10cm. The gap between the left and right sides should be consistent. The early, middle, and late harvest periods should be adjusted according to the stem dry and humidity. In the late harvest stage, the bean branches are dry and easy to break off. Therefore, the threshing drum should be used with a speed of 500r/min, a population gap of 28-35cm, and an outlet gap of 10-16cm. The selection of the speed of the threshing drum should be based on the principles of cleaning and non clogging. The threshing gap should be as large as possible under the premise of ensuring that the separated soybean stalks do not contain seeds. This adjustment can not only ensure crop cleaning but also reduce the crushing rate.

(3) Correctly adjust the tightness of the scraper chains such as the feeding chain rake, grain elevator, and residue elevator. If it is too loose, the chain and teeth are prone to crushing the beans.

(4) It should be avoided as much as possible to block the conveying parts such as the threshing drum, re thresher, grain and residue pushing auger, in order to reduce bean crushing.

2. Reduce soybean "muddy face"

When harvesting soybeans, it is required to cut the stubble very low. Occasionally, improper operation can cause soil to enter the cutting table, causing the soybean to have a "muddy face". When harvesting for this, there are several points to pay attention to.

(1) Harvest should be done in a dry state. Due to the moist soil, there is frost on the bean branches or the moisture content of the bean seeds is high, which can easily lead to the formation of "muddy flower faces". (2) Install a soil baffle behind the cutting blade to make it difficult for the soil to enter the cutting table. (3) Timely clean the soil on the cutting table, concave plate, or sieve surface. (4) Add some small holes on the bottom valve of the grain elevator (the aperture should not be greater than 4mm of the empty set) to allow soil entering the machine to leak out through the small holes.

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